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Cell Parts and Function Study Guide


Briefly describe each of the following:  (function, location, nickname)

nucleus-  the “brain” or control center (“boss”) of the cell, where DNA is held, directs all of the cell’s activities; including reproduction, large and oval shaped, has nuclear envelope with pores

cell membrane- in animal cells it forms a barrier between the cytoplasm and the environment outside the cell, in plant cells it protects the cell and regulates what substances enter and leave the cell, forms outside boundary of all cells, is selectively permeable, controls what enters and leaves the cell, all cells have a cell membrane, prevents harmful materials from entering the cell, “gate keeper"

mitochondria- rod shaped, “powerhouses”, convert energy in food molecules to energy the cells can use to carry out its functions, where most of the cell’s energy is produced

chloroplast- found in plant cells only, captures energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell, “Mr. Green”

cell wall- only found in plant cells, a stiff wall surrounds the membrane, giving the cell a rigid, boxlike shape, helps protect and support the cell, tough, water and oxygen can pass through

cytoplasm- holds all organelles, gel or jelly like fluid, where most organelles are found


Label each area of the cells:  Nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, cell membrane, chloroplast (plants)


Fill in the blank:

Cell theory- All living things are composed of cells.  Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.  All cells are produced from other cells.

Microscopes- The invention of the microscope enabled people to learn about cells.  Light microscopes magnify an object by bending light.  Electron microscopes use electrons instead of light.

A plant’s cell wall protects and supports the cell.  The cell membrane controls what substances come into and out of a cell.

The nucleus directs the cell’s activities.

Mitochondria convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use.

The endoplasmic reticulum carries materials throughout the cell.

Ribosomes produce proteins.

The Golgi bodies receive materials, package them, and distribute them.

Chloroplasts capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell.

Vacuoles are the storage areas of cells.

Lysosomes contain chemicals that break down certain materials in the cell.

In many-celled organisms, cells are often organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems.