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                                                          Unit 1 Vocabulary: Our Amazing Earth

Layers of the Earth:

inner core-made of solid iron and nickel

outer core-made of magma

mantle- made of softer rock and soil; the thickest layer

crust- made of solid rock ans soil; the thinnest layer

constructive processes- processes that build the Earth up

destructive processes- processes that break the Earth down

plate tectonics- the process of plates moving or floating on magma

plates-huge pieces of crust that float or move on magma

continental drift theory- the theory that the continents move or drift

Pangea-the supercontinent:the theory that all continents were connected long ago

volcano- an opening in the ground through which lava flows

fault-a crack in the crust, usually where two plates meet

earthquake-a shaking of the ground caused by plates colliding

seismometer-an instrument used to measure earthquakes

landform-a physical feature of Earth's surface

weathering-the process of wind, water, or ice breaking down rock into sediment

erosion-the process of wind, water, or ice carrying ediment to a new location

deposition-the process of wind, water, or ice dropping, or depositing, sediment 

magma-hot, soft rock from the Earth's lower mantle

fossils-the remains or traces of past life found in Earth's crust

mass movement- the downhill movement of rock and soil because of gravity


                                                                                                                    Physical Science

matter- anything that has mass and takes up space

mass-the amount of matter in an object

weight- the pull of gravity on an object

volume-the amount of space an object takes up

three states of matter- solid, liquid, and gas

solid-has a definite shape and volume

liquid-has a definite volume but no definite shape

gas-no definite shape or volume

solubility- something's ability to be dissolved

combustibility- the ability for something to burn

physical properties-substances like color, size, and hardness that do not change the substance

chemical properties- substances like the ability to burn where a new substance is created

evaporation- the process of a liquid becoming a gas

condensation- the process of a gas becoming a liquid

physical change- a change of matter in size, shape, or state that does not change the type of matter

chemical change- a change of matter that occurs when atoms link together in a new way, creating a new substance different from the original substance

subatomic particles- protons, neutrons, and electrons

Protons-have a positive charge and are part of the nucleus of an atom

electrons- have a negative charge and rotate around the nucleus

neutrons- have a neutral charge and are part of the nucleus

elements- cannot be broken down into a sdimpler substance and are made up of only one type of atom

compound-the chemical combination of two or more elements

molecule-the smallest part of a chemical compound

                                                        Life Science

organism-any living thing that can carry out its life on its on

cell-the smallest unit of living things

unicellular- one-celled organism

multicellular- many celled organism

nucleus-controls the cell's activities and production of new cells

cell membrane-thin layer around the cell that holds it together and allows substances in and out of the cell

cytoplasm- jelly-like substance that fills the inside of the cell

chloroplast- makes food for the plant cell

cell wall-hard structure on the outside of the plant cell that protects it