Get your plicker card and answer the following question (based on the date):
8/8: After formulating a hypothesis, a scientist
- proves the hypothesis to be true or false
- tests the hypothesis
- makes sure environmental conditions are just right
- formulates a scientific theory
8/9: Which of the following is an example of qualitative data?
- The fish swam in a zigzag motion.
- The contents of the stomach are mixed every 20 seconds.
- The temperature decreased from 20°C to 15°C.
- The six pairs of robins hatched an average of three chicks each.
8/10: “Acidic” is the appropriate description for three of the following. Which one is the exception?
- Excess hydrogen ions
- Magnesium hydroxide
- The contents of the stomach
- A pH less than 7
8/13: A researcher examines the structure of a protein that has been extracted from the membrane of a eukaryotic cell. She finds that the surface of one domain of the protein consists entirely of hydrophobic amino acids, whereas the surface of another domain consists of hydrophilic amino acids. What can she most reasonably conclude about this protein?
- This protein is probably found deep within the cell and must have been mixed with the membrane material in error during sample preparation.
- The protein is probably embedded completely within the phospholipid bilayer.
- The protein is probably bound to the outer surface of the cell membrane, facing the extracellular matrix.
- The protein is probably embedded in the cell membrane with portions extending either into the extracellular matrix or the cytoplasm.
8/14: Which of the following statements regarding carbon is false?
- Carbon has the capacity to form polar covalent bonds with hydrogen.
- Carbon has the ability to form covalent bonds with up to four other atoms.
- Carbon has the capacity to form single and double bonds.
- Carbon has the ability to bond together to form extensive branched or unbranched “carbon skeletons.”
8/15: What defining characteristic of life is observed when a jogging man begins to sweat and when a plant closes its stomata openings in its leaves?
- Cellular makeup
8/16: Which of the following statements is incorrect?
- An element is made of one specific type of atom.
- An ion is an atom with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more protons.
- A compound is composed of two or more elements in a fixed ratio.
- An element is defined by the number of protons.
8/17: Which of the following properties of water can be attributed to hydrogen bonding between water molecules?
- Water stabilizes temperature inside and outside the cell
- Water molecules are cohesive
- Water is a solvent for many molecules
- All of these are correct
8/20: Enzymes lower the activation energy by
- Helping substrates get together
- Orienting substrates into positions that favor a reaction
- Shutting out water molecules
- Inducing a fit between the enzyme and the substrate
8/24: Which of the following best distinguishes a prokaryotic cell from a eukaryotic cell?
- Prokaryotic cells have a cell wall, but eukaryotic cells never do.
- Prokaryotic cells are much larger, but eukaryotic cells.
- Prokaryotic cells have flagella, but eukaryotic cells do not.
- Prokaryotic cells do not have a membrane-bound nucleus, but eukaryotic cells do have such a nucleus.
8/27: Which of the following is not a component of the endomembrane system?
- Golgi apparatus
- Endoplasmic reticulum
8/29: Which of the following best characteristics the structure of the plasma membrane?
- Rigid and unchanging
- Rigid but varying from cell to cell
- Fluid but unorganized
- Very active
8/30: When a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution,
- Solute exits the cell to equalize the concentration on both sides of the membrane
- Water exits the cell toward the area of lower solute concentration
- Water enters the cell toward the area of higher solute concentration
- There is no net movement of water or solution
9/4: What effect does a hypotonic solution have on a cell?
- It remains the same.
- It causes it to shrink.
- It causes it to swell.
- None of these
9/5: During diffusion, substances move from an area of ____________ concentration to an area of ______________ concentration.
- Higher, lower
- Lower, higher
- Higher, equal
- Lower, equal
9/10: All cells have some similar cellular components. Which of the following is not found in all cells?
9/11: Which of the following is not an advantage a cell gains by having organelles?
- A cell gains the ability to concentrate enzymes and reactants in a small volume, thus increasing the rate of reaction.
- Enzymes for biochemical pathways can be embedded in membranes in their correct sequences, such as the electron carrying proteins of the light reactions.
- Microenvironments can be created, such as pHs, greatly different from the cytosol.
- The complexity of the cell is lowered, thus making it easier for substances to pass freely through the cell.
9/12: Which of the following best describes how the organelles of a eukaryotic cell work together when creating a protein?
- The proteins translated in the nucleus are processed by the rough endoplasmic reticulum, which then export the proteins to their final destination.
- The Golgi apparatus synthesizes proteins and either exports them out of the cell or sends them to the rough endoplasmic reticulum for further processing.
- Proteins synthesized by the ribosomes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum are moved by vacuoles to the Golgi apparatus for processing.
- The smooth endoplasmic reticulum creates proteins, packages them in vacuoles, and sends them to the Golgi apparatus for processing and transport to the final destination.
9/19: ______________ produces __________, which is the energy molecule for the cell.
- Chloroplast, ATP
- Mitochondria, ATP
- Chloroplast, Glucose
- Mitochondria, Glucose
9/20: What is the major pigment in plants?
- None of these
9/21: Which molecules are transferred between the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions (i.e. Calvin cycle)?
- CO2 and ATP
- ATP and NADPH
- NADPH and H2O
- H2O and O2
9/24: What is the function of a photosystem in the light-dependent reaction?
- To absorb light energy and pass along the excited photons
- To absorb light energy and pass along the excited electrons
- To create ATP from excited electrons
- To split water and provide excited electrons
9/25: Which of the following enzymes is involved in the Calvin cycle?
- Photosystem I
- ATP Synthase
- Photosystem II
9/26: Photosynthesis is the process in which organisms convert the energy of light (photon) into chemical energy stored in food. This process relies on the energy held within the wavelengths of the visible light spectrum, as depicted in the graphs. As the pigments absorb light, the energy is used to drive the electron transport chain and split water. Based on this information, which of the following explanations best describes the necessity of accessory pigments to make the process effective?
- Chlorophyll a and b are the most abundant pigments found in green plants and a 50% and an 80% absorption rate, respectively. However, they are still only absorbing a very small percentage of the total energy available in the visible light spectrum, and therefore, plants benefit from being able to absorb the other wavelengths as well.
- Since chlorophyll a has a short wavelength, it has less energy and therefore needs the other pigments to increase the energy being absorbed as light hits the photosystems in the thylakoids.
- While carotenoids are absorbing approximately 60% of the available light at the lower wavelengths, the chlorophyll a and b absorption is necessary for the plant to reap the largest available energy.
- The accessory pigments are not necessary under ideal conditions, which is why they are considered accessory. They only function during the cooler months of fall when the chlorophyll pigments are no longer functioning.
9/27: Which of the following is the source of the oxygen released during photosynthesis?
- More than one of these
9/28: Photorespiration is a problem because
- Water is lost
- Extra carbon is added
- Oxygen is fixed instead of carbon
- Oxygen is released
10/1: What is the carbon dioxide source in this experiment?
- Bicarbonate solution
- Acid solution
10/3: What chemical bond in ATP releases energy when broken?
10/4: How many ATP molecules are used and produced per molecule of glucose during glycolysis?
- The first half of glycolysis uses 2 ATPs, and the second half of glycolysis produces 4 ATPs.
- The first half of glycolysis produces 2 ATPs, and the second half of glycolysis uses 4 ATPs.
- The first half of glycolysis uses 4 ATPs, and the second half of glycolysis produces 2 ATPs.
- The first half of glycolysis produces 4 ATPs, and the second half of glycolysis uses 2 ATPs.
10/15: Which stage of cellular respiration are shared between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
- Electron transport chain
- Krebs cycle
- None of these
10/16: The diagram shows oxidative phosphorylation, a process that occurs on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. It uses a series of proteins called the electron transport chain to pump hydrogen ions across the membrane. In this process, electrons are donated to the electron transport chain by NADH and FADH2. These electrons are ultimately passed to oxygen, which acts as the final electron acceptor. The hydrogen ion gradient created across the membrane is used to power the ATP synthase, which drives the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. According to the diagram, which of the following is true concerning the ability of NADH and FADH2 to drive the production of ATP?
- NADH and FADH2 provide exactly the same amount of energy to drive the production of ATP. This is because they both donate electrons to the electron transport chain.
- NADH provides less energy than FADH2. This is because NADH has to move through more proteins to reach the ATPase than does FADH2.
- FADH2 leads to the production of less ATP because FADH2 donates electrons to hydrogen ions to make them neutrally charged so that they can pass through the membrane. NADH leads to the production of more ATP because NADH donates electrons to the electron transport chain, which pumps hydrogen ions across the membrane.
- FADH2 leads to the production of less ATP whereas NADH leads to the production of more ATP. This is because NADH donates electrons to the first of three hydrogen pumps in the electron transport chain whereas FADH2 donates electrons to the second of the three hydrogen ion pumps.
10/17: Chemiosmosis, the generation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, is a crucial requirement for the synthesis of ATP in cellular respiration. Which of the following describes how the cell powers the movement of protons up its gradient?
- A transporter on the outer membrane allows the diffusion of protons from the cytoplasm to the inner membrane space.
- ATP synthase powers the movement of protons up its concentration gradient while simultaneously generating ATP.
- Electrons are transported into the inner membrane space, drawing in protons due to electrostatic attraction.
- Complexes of the electron transport chain undergo redox reactions that, in turn, generate the energy to pass protons up its gradient.
10/18: ATP contains all of the following except
- Three phosphates
10/19: C4 photosynthesis
- Is the same as C3 photosynthesis, because it takes place in chloroplasts.
- Occurs in plants whose bundle sheath cells contain chloroplasts.
- Is an advantage when the weather is not and dry.
- Both b and c are correct.
10/22: ATP synthase is
- Both an enzyme that makes ATP and a channel protein, and helps hydrogen ions cross the thylakoid membrane.
- Both an enzyme that makes ATP and a channel protein, and helps hydrogen ions cross the chloroplast membrane.
- Both an enzyme that makes ATP and a carrier protein, and helps hydrogen ions cross the thylakoid membrane.
- Both an enzyme that makes ATP and a carrier protein, and helps hydrogen ions cross the chloroplast membrane.
10/25: Which cells undergo cell division?
- Prokaryotic cells only
- Eukaryotic cells only
- Cancer cells only
- Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
10/29: A gene that codes for a positive cell cycle regulator is called a(n)
- Kinase inhibitor
- Tumor suppressor gene
10/30: Mitosis ___________ chromosome number whereas meiosis __________ the chromosome number of the daughter cells.
- Maintains, increases
- Increases, maintains
- Increases, decreases
- Maintains, decreases
11/1: Meiosis produces ____________ cells while mitosis produces ____________ cells.
- Haploid, diploid
- Diploid, diploid
- Diploid, haploid
- Haploid, haploid
11/7: The subunits of DNA are nucleotides consisting of
- A sugar, a carbon group, and a nitrogen-containing base.
- A sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base.
- A sugar, a phosphate group, and an oxygen-containing base.
- A lipid, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base.
11/8: Rosalind Franklin used which technique to determine many of the physical characteristics of DNA?
- Transmission electron microscopy
- X-ray diffraction
- Density-gradient centrifugation
11/9: DNA replication is said to be semiconservative because
- One of the new molecules conserves both of the original DNA strands.
- The new DNA molecule contains two new DNA strands.
- Both of the new molecules contain one new strand and one old strand.
- DNA polymerase conserves both of the old strands.
11/12: If the sequence of bases in one strand of DNA is 5’-TAGCCT-3’, then the sequence of bases in the other strand is
11/13: Frameshift mutations may involve
- Substitution of nucleotides.
- Substitution of codons.
- Substitution of amino acids.
- Addition or deletion of one or more base pairs.
11/14: A researcher noticed that two differently structured proteins were translated from the same mouse gene. Which mechanism below could best account for this?
- A mutation altered the gene in some cells but not others.
- Exons from the same gene could be spliced in different ways to make different mRNAs.
- The two proteins have different functions in the cell.
- Different transcription factors were involved in the transcription of the two mRNAs.