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3 new amendments to the Constitution:

  • 13th: ended slavery
  • 14th: if you’re born in the U.S. you’re a citizen of the U.S.
  • 15th: all men can vote, no matter their color

U.S. started a new office called the Freedmen’s Bureau to help former slaves.  It built schools, helped with legal problems, and gave out lots of food and medicine.  Most former slaves became sharecroppers, so they could work and eat or sell part of the crops they raised.

Jim Crow laws were passed by states to discriminate against blacks.  One Jim Crow law was to make blacks take literacy (reading) tests to vote.  This was later outlawed by the 24TH Amendment).

Many former slaves in Texas became cowboys, taking cattle across the plains to markets for selling.  These black cowboys of Texas often took cattle from Texas to Kansas along the Chisholm Trail, or even futher north along the Great Western Cattle Trail.

Inventions and inventors:

Wright Brothers:  airplanes, in Kitty Hawk, NC                      George Washington Carver: peanuts

Alexander Graham Bell: telephone                   Thomas Edison: light bulb and power stations


Contact Us
Polk School District 612 South College St.
Cedartown, GA 30125
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Phone: 770-748-3821
Fax: 770-748-5131
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