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Handouts and information for Social Studies

Week 19 






SS5H3 Explain how the Great Depression and New Deal affected the lives of millions of Americans. To demonstrate mastery of this standard, students must understand the massive economic instability that affected the United States in the 1930s, brought about by the stock market crash and the depression that followed. Students must identify and discuss the Stock Market Crash of 1929, the roles of Hoover, Roosevelt, the Dust Bowl, and soup kitchens as events and people playing a role in the Great Depression. SS5H3 Explain how the Great Depression and New Deal affected the lives of millions of Americans. a. Discuss the Stock Market Crash of 1929, Herbert Hoover, Franklin Roosevelt, the Dust Bowl, and soup kitchens. The Stock Market Crash of 1929 ended a decade of growth in the Stock Market that occurred during the Roaring Twenties. The “crash” occurred on October 29, 1929, when 16 million shares were traded in a single day causing thousands to lose their investments and billions of dollars in loss. This period known as the Great Depression was a period of high unemployment and a lack of confidence in financial institutions. During this time, many Americans faced unemployment and lacked the financial means to support themselves. Soup kitchens served hot meals to the unemployed and homeless. Soup kitchen image is Public Domain from National Archives. Without this assistance, many Americans would have had no means of obtaining food for their families. Businesses and financial institutions struggled to recover from economic collapse, while many agricultural communities in the Great Plains experienced drought and windstorms. Poor farming practices combined with severe drought turned large swathes of fertile land into useless dust, which blew across the area in great storms. These huge dust storms labeled this part of the country the Dust Bowl. As a result, many farmers mortgaged their homes and farms. Without sellable crops, they were unable to repay their loans. These farmers, along with many other Americans, found themselves homeless and jobless. Although he put into place plans to tackle the economic woes, Herbert Hoover, President of the United States, was blamed for not assisting struggling Americans. He was reluctant to involve the federal government. Many Americans saw the 1932 election of Franklin Roosevelt as a turning point that would bring renewed prosperity to the country. Ultimately, it would take government assistance through the social programs of FDR’s New Deal as well as an industrial buildup during wartime to resurrect the economy. Vocabulary: economic instability, stock market crash, economic depression, Roaring Twenties, investments, unemployment, financial institutions, drought, windstorms, mortgage, federal government, prosperity, government assistance Resources: Stock Market Crash: PBS: Stock Market Crash – a brief background essay http://www.pbs.org/fmc/timeline/estockmktcrash.htm Library of Congress – Resources related to the Great Depression, includes images, documents, lesson plans http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/themes/great-depression/

SS5H3 Explain how the Great Depression and New Deal affected the lives of millions of Americans. b. Analyze the main features of the New Deal; include the significance of the Civilian Conservation Corps, Works Progress Administration, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The New Deal, a series of programs and legislation that was initiated by President Franklin Roosevelt, was developed to provide economic assistance to struggling Americans and to bring an end to the Great Depression. Beginning with Roosevelt’s inauguration in 1933, the programs revolved around three concepts. The three concepts were relief for those suffering from poverty, recovery to help the nation get back on its feet economically, and reform to prevent a similar economic situation in the future. The following programs listed in the standard were created during the New Deal: Civilian Conservation Corps: Established in 1933 to employ young men, the CCC worked to preserve natural resources and areas, with the goal of conservation for future generations. The CCC dug canals, restored historic battlefields, built wildlife shelters, and established more than 800 parks. The CCC employed nearly 3 million young men. Works Progress Administration: Established in 1935, the largest of the New Deal programs affected the lives of millions of Americans. It provided jobs for over 8.5 million unemployed people, and simultaneously allowed for the development of the American infrastructure, especially public buildings and roads. The WPA also supported the work of artists, academics, and others in such activities as recording American history, creating public art, and sponsoring public musical performances. Tennessee Valley Authority: Established in 1933 to rejuvenate the Tennessee River Valley, the TVA supported farmers in investigating modern farming practices, and created a network of dams and power plants that supplied electricity to a large region that had never seen it before. Still in existence today, the TVA continues to work to provide power to the region while managing its natural resources. Vocabulary: inauguration, poverty, corps, natural resources, employed, infrastructure 


SS5H3 Explain how the Great Depression and New Deal affected the lives of millions of Americans. c. Discuss important cultural elements of the 1930s; include Duke Ellington, Margaret Mitchell, and Jesse Owens. Duke Ellington, one of America’s most prolific composers, created many notable pieces of music in a variety of genres, including blues, jazz, and swing. He traveled the country with his orchestra, and his music entered the homes of many Americans due to the popularity of radio. Margaret Mitchell, a newspaper reporter and author in Atlanta, created her famous 1936 work, Gone with the Wind. Her book sold a million copies in six months during the height of the Great Depression. Mitchell’s story described the story of a Georgia plantation family before, during, and after the Civil War. Image of book – CC by-SA 2.0 Jesse Owens was an African American or Black who 


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