Text Options for the Visually Impaired Font Size: a- A+ Color: A A A Revert 
Close vision bar
Open vision bar
Literary Terms Year End Review

Literary Terms Review

  1. Theme means main idea.
  2. Tone means attitude.
  3. Irony happens when the intended meaning of a word used is the opposite of its literal meaning.
  4. Types of Irony:
  1. Dramatic Irony-When the reader or audience understands more about the events of a story than a character.
  2. Situational Irony-When what actually happens it the opposite of what is expected to happen.
  3. Verbal Irony-A character says one thing but really means the opposite of what they say.
  1.  Point of View-The relationship of the narrator or storyteller to the story.
  1.  First person- The story is told by one of the characters and is referred to as I.
  2. Second person-The narrator is speaking to the person reading the story, and is referring to them as you.
  3. Third person-
  1.  Limited-The narrator reveals the thoughts of only one character, and refers to that character as he or she.
  2. Omniscient-The narrator reveals the thoughts and feelings of several characters.
  1. Plot-The sequence of events in a story.
  2.  Setting-Time and place in a story.
  3. Character-
  1. Flat-Characters who reveal only one personality trait.
  2. Round-Characters who show many and varied traits.
  3. Static-Remains the same during the story.
  4. Dynamic-Changes during the story.
  1. Author’s Purpose- The intention of the writer.
  2. Audience-Who you are speaking to in a story.
  3. Exposition-The setting, characters, and brief introduction of story.
  4. Rising Action-Conflicts that arise in the story. Could be many of these.
  5. Climax-Turning point of the story. Everything changes. Highest point of interest.
  6. Falling Action-What immediately happens after the conflict?
  7. Resolution-How the story ends in the end.
  8. Alliteration-Repetition of consonant sounds usually at the beginnings of words.

Ex: The cobbles clattered and clashed

  1. Act-What a play is divided into. It is a major unit of a drama.
  2. Analogy-A comparison between two things based on one or more elements that they share.
  3. Anecdote-A brief entertaining story based on a single interesting or humorous incident or event.
  4. Antagonist-A person or force that opposes the protagonist.
  5. Protagonist-The central character in the story.
  6. Assonance-Repetition of vowel sounds.
  7. Biography-Story written about a person by someone else.
  8. Autobiography-A story a person writes about themselves.
  9. Ballad-A short musical narrative song or poem.
  10. Conflict-Problem in the story.
  1. Internal –Character struggles with forces within themselves.
  2. External-Character struggles with forces outside of themselves.`1
  1.  Characterization-Methods a writer uses to develop the personality of the character.
  1.  Direct – The writer makes a direct statement about a character’s personality.
  2. Indirect- The writer reveals a character’s personality through words and actions, but doesn’t make a direct statement.
  1.  Comedy- A humorous drama.
  2. Consonance- The repetition of consonant sounds in stressed syllables.
  3. Genre-
  1.  Prose-fiction and nonfiction
  2. Drama-Plays, acting things out
  3. Poetry
  1.  Dialogue-Conversation between characters in a story, quotes.
  2. Dialect- Variations of language spoken by a particular group in a particular region.
  3. Epic-Long narrative poem.
  4. Narrative-Tells a story.
  5. Metaphor-Comparing two unlike things not using like or as.
  6. Fable-Fictional story that teaches a moral lesson.
  7. Fantasy- Form of literature that explores unreal worlds of the past, present, and future.
  8. Fiction-Fake, not real
  9. Nonfiction-NOT FAKE, REAL
  10. Figurative Language-Language used for descriptive effect.
  11. Flashback-To think back to something that has happened before in a story usually to a particular character.
  12. Folklore-Traditional story passed on by word of mouth.
  13. Folktale-A traditional story passed down orally long before being written down.  Includes animals, fairy tales, legends, and tall tales.
  14. Haiku-Poem with 3 lines. 1st and 3rd line has 5 syllables, and 2 line has 7 syllables. A Japanese poem about nature.
  15. Hero-A character whom everyone admires and looks up to in the story.
  16. Historical Fiction-Has fictional characters and story, but the story is based on historical facts, but is not real.
  17. Idiom-An extreme exaggeration. Ex: I caught a cold.
  18. Imagery-Images you have in your mind after reading something.
  19. Informational Text- Nonfiction writing that gives facts, and no personal opinion.
  20. Persuasive Text- Opinion is in here. Trying to sway the reader to a particular point.
  21. Legend-Traditional story based on history of an actual hero, but become exaggerated and gains more exaggeration over time. Ex: Davy Crockett, Daniel Boone.
  22. Limerick- 5 line rhyming poem. 1, 2, 5 lines rhyme together, and the 3, 4 lines rhyme together. Rhyme scheme is aabba.
  23. Rhyme Scheme- Format of how a poem rhymes, and what the pattern is. EX: aabba, aaba, abab
  24. Novella-A work of fiction shorter than a novel but longer than a short story.
  25. Onomatopoeia-The use of a word or a phrase that actually imitates or suggests the sound of what it describes. EX: BAM, WHAM
  26. Personification- Giving human qualities to something that isn’t human. EX: The wind spoke to me.
  27. Propaganda-To take writing and try to influence ideas or opinions with it. Usually inaccurate, but swayed to look real.
  28. Props-What is used for a set in a play.
  29. Repetition-To continue to repeat something.
  30. Science Fiction-Fiction dealing with science.
  31. Short Story- A brief fictional narrative.
  32. Simile-To compare to unlike things using like or as.
  33. Sonnet-Poem containing 14 lines. Usually written in iambic pentameter.
  34. Stage Directions-Instructions for characters in play or acting out scenes.
  35. Style- Author’s choice and arrangement of words and sentences in a literary work.
  36. Voice- Author’s style.









  1. Writing Process
  1.  Prewriting-Decide what you want to write about (brainstorm). Gather information. Decide on your audience.  Explore your topic.
  2. Drafting-Organize the facts and information you have gathered into unified paragraphs.
  3. Revising-Make sure your writing is clear and well organized. Does your paper make sense?
  4. Proofreading-Check your punctuation, grammar, spelling, etc.
  5. Publishing-Share your work. Either present it orally or through a paper you write in a final draft.
  1. Transition words are important in writing a paper. They help you change your flow of ideas or thoughts. EX:  however, because, when, first, etc.
  2. Know who you are writing to. Make sure you don’t change the point of view or your audience in the middle of your writing.
  3. Narrative Writing-Telling a story.
  4. Expository Writing-To explain or inform.
  5. Compare and contrast-How they are alike, and how they are different.
  6. Persuasive Writing- To convince someone to feel a certain way about a particular topic, to persuade them.
  7. Thesis Statement-Tells what the main idea of your paper is. It is your topic sentence or clincher sentence.
  8. Letters
  1.  Business letter-Should be written in block style form-no indentions.  All parts of the letter begin at the left margin.  Greeting always has a colon instead of a comma.
  2. Friendly letter- Indent, no so formal. Like you are having a conversation with a friend.
  3. Salutation-ending of letter EX: Sincerely,
  4. Greeting-beginning of letter EX: Dear Mrs. Hulsey,
  1. Research
  1. Online-When you look up info online, you can’t use a search engine like GOOGLE as your resource. You must click on one of the choices like WORLD BOOK ENCYCLOPEDIA that GOOGLE give you to determine the resource.
  2. Periodicals-Remember, these have articles that you can look up about information.
  3. Dictionary-You find general definitions here. You also find out parts of speech, pronunciations. At the top of the page you will find guide words in a dictionary. The first word is the first word on that page, and the last guide word is the last word on that page.
  4. Encyclopedia-Gives specific information on a topic. Can be very detailed.
  1. Kinds of Sentences:
  1.  Declarative-Makes a statement. Use a period.
  2. Interrogative-Asks a question. Use a question mark.
  3. Imperative-A command. Can end with a period or an exclamation point. If it is a command it is imperative. And, most imperative sentences have the “understood you” as the subject of the sentence. EX: Sit down! This is a command and the subject of the sentence is the understood you.
  1.  Types of Sentences:
  1.  Simple-Contains one independent (main clause) and no dependent (subordinate) clauses. It contains a subject and a verb and is a complete thought.
  2. Compound-Contains 2 or more independent (main) clauses and no dependent (subordinate) clauses.
  3. Complex-Contains 1 independent (main) clause and 1 or more dependent (subordinate) clauses.
  4. Compound Complex-Contains 2 or more independent (main) clauses and 1 or more dependent (subordinate) clauses.
  1.  Simple Subject- One word the sentence is about.
  2. Simple Predicate or  Verb-

There are 3 types of verbs:

  1. Action-Something being done. EX: Jump, Run
  2. Helping-Helps and Action Verb  EX: had swam
  3. Linking-Links or connects the sentence.  EX: is, am, are, was, were
  1.  Complete Subject-All the words in the subject of the sentence (most of the time it is all the words before the verb).
  2.  Complete Predicate- All the words in the predicate of the sentence (most of the time it is the verb plus all the words after it).
  3. Fragment- Not a sentence. It is missing a subject or verb, or it is not a complete thought.
  4. Compound Subject- 2 or more simple subjects.
  5. Compound Predicate- 2 or more simple predicates.
  6.  Nouns-Person, place, thing, or idea.
  1.  Common-Any person, place, thing, or idea.
  2. Proper- A particular person, place, thing, or idea.
  3. Concrete- Nouns that can be seen or touched.
  4. Abstract- Nouns that are ideas or qualities. EX: LOVE
  5. Compound- Nouns made up of two or more words. EX: grade book
  6. Singular-Means one.
  7. Plural- Means more than one.
  8. Collective-Names a group even when it is singular or plural.

EX: team, school

  1. Possessive- Nouns that show ownership. EX: Leslie’s or babies’
  1. Contraction- A word made by combining words with an apostrophe. EX: can’t, won’t, don’t **CONTRACTIONS ARE NOT POSSESSIVES
  2. Appositive- A noun that is placed next to another noun to identify it or add information about it. EX: James Madison’s wife, Dolly, was a famous lady.

Dolly is the appositive.

  1. Appositive Phrase- A group of words that includes an appositive and the words that go with it. EX: Dolly, James Madison’s lovely wife, was famous. Madison’s lovely wife is the appositive phrase.
  2. Transitive Verb and Intransitive Verb- Transitive contains a direct object. Intransitive has no direct object.
  3. Direct Object-The receiver of the action. Used with an action verb.
  4. Indirect Object- To whom or what or for who or what an action is done. You will never have an indirect object without a direct object.
  5. Predicate Adjective-An adjective that follows a linking verb and modifies (describes) the subject of the sentence.
  6. Predicate Noun (Nominative) - A noun that follows a linking verb and renames the subject of the sentence.
  7. Predicate Pronoun-A pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames the subject of the sentence.
  8. Verb phrase- 2 verbs together
  9. Tenses of verbs:
  1. Present-Expresses action that happens regularly.
  2. Past- Expresses action that already happened.
  3. Future-Expresses action that will take place.
  4. Present progressive- Uses the helping verbs is, am, are plus add ing to the verb. EX: is swimming
  5. Past progressive-Uses the helping verbs was, were plus add ing to the verb. EX: were swimming
  6. Present perfect-Uses the helping verbs have, has plus add ed to the verb. EX: have jogged
  7. Past perfect-Uses the helping verb had plus add ed. EX: had jogged
  8. Future perfect-Uses helping verbs will have or shall have plus ed.
  1.  Active Voice- Has a direct object. Ex: You question puzzled Henry.
  2. Passive Voice- No direct object (in a prepositional phrase instead).

EX: He is puzzled by your question.

  1.  Subject Verb Agreement- A singular verb requires a singular verb, and a plural subject requires a plural verb. The subject and its verb are said to agree in number. EX: A botanist studies plant life.  Or   Plants require care.
  2. Antecedent-The word the pronoun refers to.
  3. Pronouns-
  1.  Personal-Refer to people or things.
  2. Subject or subjective pronoun-Used as the subject of the sentence or as a predicate noun.
  3. Object or objective pronoun-Used as a direct object, indirect object, or object of the preposition.
  4. Possessive-Shows ownership
  5. Indefinite- Does not refer to a particular place or thing. Ex: Anybody, everybody
  6. Reflexive- ends with self or selves and refers to the subject of the sentence. It is necessary in the sentence.
  7. Intensive-ends with self or selves and is used to draw special attention, but not necessary in the sentence.
  8. Interrogative- Used in a question.
  9. Demonstrative- this, that, these, those Points something out.
  1.  Articles:

A, an, the a (used before words beginning with a consonant sound), an (used before words beginning with a vowel sound) are indefinite and the is definite.

  1.  Adjectives: Modify or describe a noun or a pronoun.

Questions you ask for them: how many, how much, what kind, which one

  1. Demonstrative Adjectives-This, that, these, those Modify something.
  2. Comparative- An adjective that compares one person or thing with another. Has a 1:1 ratio. One syllable words add er. With adjectives with two or more syllables add more or less to the adjective.

EX: smaller

More famous

Superlative-An adjective that compares one thing to many things. A 1:2 ratio. One syllable words add est. With adjectives with two or more syllables add most or least.

  1. Ex:  smallest

Most fabulous

  1. Adverbs: Modify or describe a verb, adjective, or another adverb.

Questions you ask for them: how, when, where, to what extent

  1. Comparative- An adverb that compares one action with another. Has a 1:1 ratio. One syllable words add er. With adjectives with two or more syllables add more or less to the adverb.EX:  earlier, more often
  2. Superlative-An adverb that compares one action with several other actions. A 1:2 ratio. One syllable words add est. With adjectives with two or more syllables add most or least.EX: earliest, most often
  1. Double Negatives- Using two negative words together.
Contact Us
Polk School District 612 South College St.
Cedartown, GA 30125
View Map & Directions
Phone: 770-748-3821
Fax: 770-748-5131
Google-Translate-Chinese (Simplified) BETA Google-Translate-English to French Google-Translate-English to German Google-Translate-English to Italian Google-Translate-English to Japanese BETA Google-Translate-English to Korean BETA Google-Translate-English to Russian BETA Google-Translate-English to Spanish Google-Translate-English to Tagalog Google-Translate-English to Portuguese Google-Translate-English to Vietnamese