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Literary Terms Year End Review

Literary Terms Review

  1. Theme means main idea.
  2. Tone means attitude.
  3. Irony happens when the intended meaning of a word used is the opposite of its literal meaning.
  4. Types of Irony:
  1. Dramatic Irony-When the reader or audience understands more about the events of a story than a character.
  2. Situational Irony-When what actually happens it the opposite of what is expected to happen.
  3. Verbal Irony-A character says one thing but really means the opposite of what they say.
  1.  Point of View-The relationship of the narrator or storyteller to the story.
  1.  First person- The story is told by one of the characters and is referred to as I.
  2. Second person-The narrator is speaking to the person reading the story, and is referring to them as you.
  3. Third person-
  1.  Limited-The narrator reveals the thoughts of only one character, and refers to that character as he or she.
  2. Omniscient-The narrator reveals the thoughts and feelings of several characters.
  1. Plot-The sequence of events in a story.
  2.  Setting-Time and place in a story.
  3. Character-
  1. Flat-Characters who reveal only one personality trait.
  2. Round-Characters who show many and varied traits.
  3. Static-Remains the same during the story.
  4. Dynamic-Changes during the story.
  1. Author’s Purpose- The intention of the writer.
  2. Audience-Who you are speaking to in a story.
  3. Exposition-The setting, characters, and brief introduction of story.
  4. Rising Action-Conflicts that arise in the story. Could be many of these.
  5. Climax-Turning point of the story. Everything changes. Highest point of interest.
  6. Falling Action-What immediately happens after the conflict?
  7. Resolution-How the story ends in the end.
  8. Alliteration-Repetition of consonant sounds usually at the beginnings of words.

Ex: The cobbles clattered and clashed

  1. Act-What a play is divided into. It is a major unit of a drama.
  2. Analogy-A comparison between two things based on one or more elements that they share.
  3. Anecdote-A brief entertaining story based on a single interesting or humorous incident or event.
  4. Antagonist-A person or force that opposes the protagonist.
  5. Protagonist-The central character in the story.
  6. Assonance-Repetition of vowel sounds.
  7. Biography-Story written about a person by someone else.
  8. Autobiography-A story a person writes about themselves.
  9. Ballad-A short musical narrative song or poem.
  10. Conflict-Problem in the story.
  1. Internal –Character struggles with forces within themselves.
  2. External-Character struggles with forces outside of themselves.`1
  1.  Characterization-Methods a writer uses to develop the personality of the character.
  1.  Direct – The writer makes a direct statement about a character’s personality.
  2. Indirect- The writer reveals a character’s personality through words and actions, but doesn’t make a direct statement.
  1.  Comedy- A humorous drama.
  2. Consonance- The repetition of consonant sounds in stressed syllables.
  3. Genre-
  1.  Prose-fiction and nonfiction
  2. Drama-Plays, acting things out
  3. Poetry
  1.  Dialogue-Conversation between characters in a story, quotes.
  2. Dialect- Variations of language spoken by a particular group in a particular region.
  3. Epic-Long narrative poem.
  4. Narrative-Tells a story.
  5. Metaphor-Comparing two unlike things not using like or as.
  6. Fable-Fictional story that teaches a moral lesson.
  7. Fantasy- Form of literature that explores unreal worlds of the past, present, and future.
  8. Fiction-Fake, not real
  9. Nonfiction-NOT FAKE, REAL
  10. Figurative Language-Language used for descriptive effect.
  11. Flashback-To think back to something that has happened before in a story usually to a particular character.
  12. Folklore-Traditional story passed on by word of mouth.
  13. Folktale-A traditional story passed down orally long before being written down.  Includes animals, fairy tales, legends, and tall tales.
  14. Haiku-Poem with 3 lines. 1st and 3rd line has 5 syllables, and 2 line has 7 syllables. A Japanese poem about nature.
  15. Hero-A character whom everyone admires and looks up to in the story.
  16. Historical Fiction-Has fictional characters and story, but the story is based on historical facts, but is not real.
  17. Idiom-An extreme exaggeration. Ex: I caught a cold.
  18. Imagery-Images you have in your mind after reading something.
  19. Informational Text- Nonfiction writing that gives facts, and no personal opinion.
  20. Persuasive Text- Opinion is in here. Trying to sway the reader to a particular point.
  21. Legend-Traditional story based on history of an actual hero, but become exaggerated and gains more exaggeration over time. Ex: Davy Crockett, Daniel Boone.
  22. Limerick- 5 line rhyming poem. 1, 2, 5 lines rhyme together, and the 3, 4 lines rhyme together. Rhyme scheme is aabba.
  23. Rhyme Scheme- Format of how a poem rhymes, and what the pattern is. EX: aabba, aaba, abab
  24. Novella-A work of fiction shorter than a novel but longer than a short story.
  25. Onomatopoeia-The use of a word or a phrase that actually imitates or suggests the sound of what it describes. EX: BAM, WHAM
  26. Personification- Giving human qualities to something that isn’t human. EX: The wind spoke to me.
  27. Propaganda-To take writing and try to influence ideas or opinions with it. Usually inaccurate, but swayed to look real.
  28. Props-What is used for a set in a play.
  29. Repetition-To continue to repeat something.
  30. Science Fiction-Fiction dealing with science.
  31. Short Story- A brief fictional narrative.
  32. Simile-To compare to unlike things using like or as.
  33. Sonnet-Poem containing 14 lines. Usually written in iambic pentameter.
  34. Stage Directions-Instructions for characters in play or acting out scenes.
  35. Style- Author’s choice and arrangement of words and sentences in a literary work.
  36. Voice- Author’s style.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Writing Process
  1.  Prewriting-Decide what you want to write about (brainstorm). Gather information. Decide on your audience.  Explore your topic.
  2. Drafting-Organize the facts and information you have gathered into unified paragraphs.
  3. Revising-Make sure your writing is clear and well organized. Does your paper make sense?
  4. Proofreading-Check your punctuation, grammar, spelling, etc.
  5. Publishing-Share your work. Either present it orally or through a paper you write in a final draft.
  1. Transition words are important in writing a paper. They help you change your flow of ideas or thoughts. EX:  however, because, when, first, etc.
  2. Know who you are writing to. Make sure you don’t change the point of view or your audience in the middle of your writing.
  3. Narrative Writing-Telling a story.
  4. Expository Writing-To explain or inform.
  5. Compare and contrast-How they are alike, and how they are different.
  6. Persuasive Writing- To convince someone to feel a certain way about a particular topic, to persuade them.
  7. Thesis Statement-Tells what the main idea of your paper is. It is your topic sentence or clincher sentence.
  8. Letters
  1.  Business letter-Should be written in block style form-no indentions.  All parts of the letter begin at the left margin.  Greeting always has a colon instead of a comma.
  2. Friendly letter- Indent, no so formal. Like you are having a conversation with a friend.
  3. Salutation-ending of letter EX: Sincerely,
  4. Greeting-beginning of letter EX: Dear Mrs. Hulsey,
  1. Research
  1. Online-When you look up info online, you can’t use a search engine like GOOGLE as your resource. You must click on one of the choices like WORLD BOOK ENCYCLOPEDIA that GOOGLE give you to determine the resource.
  2. Periodicals-Remember, these have articles that you can look up about information.
  3. Dictionary-You find general definitions here. You also find out parts of speech, pronunciations. At the top of the page you will find guide words in a dictionary. The first word is the first word on that page, and the last guide word is the last word on that page.
  4. Encyclopedia-Gives specific information on a topic. Can be very detailed.
  1. Kinds of Sentences:
  1.  Declarative-Makes a statement. Use a period.
  2. Interrogative-Asks a question. Use a question mark.
  3. Imperative-A command. Can end with a period or an exclamation point. If it is a command it is imperative. And, most imperative sentences have the “understood you” as the subject of the sentence. EX: Sit down! This is a command and the subject of the sentence is the understood you.
  1.  Types of Sentences:
  1.  Simple-Contains one independent (main clause) and no dependent (subordinate) clauses. It contains a subject and a verb and is a complete thought.
  2. Compound-Contains 2 or more independent (main) clauses and no dependent (subordinate) clauses.
  3. Complex-Contains 1 independent (main) clause and 1 or more dependent (subordinate) clauses.
  4. Compound Complex-Contains 2 or more independent (main) clauses and 1 or more dependent (subordinate) clauses.
  1.  Simple Subject- One word the sentence is about.
  2. Simple Predicate or  Verb-

There are 3 types of verbs:

  1. Action-Something being done. EX: Jump, Run
  2. Helping-Helps and Action Verb  EX: had swam
  3. Linking-Links or connects the sentence.  EX: is, am, are, was, were
  1.  Complete Subject-All the words in the subject of the sentence (most of the time it is all the words before the verb).
  2.  Complete Predicate- All the words in the predicate of the sentence (most of the time it is the verb plus all the words after it).
  3. Fragment- Not a sentence. It is missing a subject or verb, or it is not a complete thought.
  4. Compound Subject- 2 or more simple subjects.
  5. Compound Predicate- 2 or more simple predicates.
  6.  Nouns-Person, place, thing, or idea.
  1.  Common-Any person, place, thing, or idea.
  2. Proper- A particular person, place, thing, or idea.
  3. Concrete- Nouns that can be seen or touched.
  4. Abstract- Nouns that are ideas or qualities. EX: LOVE
  5. Compound- Nouns made up of two or more words. EX: grade book
  6. Singular-Means one.
  7. Plural- Means more than one.
  8. Collective-Names a group even when it is singular or plural.

EX: team, school

  1. Possessive- Nouns that show ownership. EX: Leslie’s or babies’
  1. Contraction- A word made by combining words with an apostrophe. EX: can’t, won’t, don’t **CONTRACTIONS ARE NOT POSSESSIVES
  2. Appositive- A noun that is placed next to another noun to identify it or add information about it. EX: James Madison’s wife, Dolly, was a famous lady.

Dolly is the appositive.

  1. Appositive Phrase- A group of words that includes an appositive and the words that go with it. EX: Dolly, James Madison’s lovely wife, was famous. Madison’s lovely wife is the appositive phrase.
  2. Transitive Verb and Intransitive Verb- Transitive contains a direct object. Intransitive has no direct object.
  3. Direct Object-The receiver of the action. Used with an action verb.
  4. Indirect Object- To whom or what or for who or what an action is done. You will never have an indirect object without a direct object.
  5. Predicate Adjective-An adjective that follows a linking verb and modifies (describes) the subject of the sentence.
  6. Predicate Noun (Nominative) - A noun that follows a linking verb and renames the subject of the sentence.
  7. Predicate Pronoun-A pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames the subject of the sentence.
  8. Verb phrase- 2 verbs together
  9. Tenses of verbs:
  1. Present-Expresses action that happens regularly.
  2. Past- Expresses action that already happened.
  3. Future-Expresses action that will take place.
  4. Present progressive- Uses the helping verbs is, am, are plus add ing to the verb. EX: is swimming
  5. Past progressive-Uses the helping verbs was, were plus add ing to the verb. EX: were swimming
  6. Present perfect-Uses the helping verbs have, has plus add ed to the verb. EX: have jogged
  7. Past perfect-Uses the helping verb had plus add ed. EX: had jogged
  8. Future perfect-Uses helping verbs will have or shall have plus ed.
  1.  Active Voice- Has a direct object. Ex: You question puzzled Henry.
  2. Passive Voice- No direct object (in a prepositional phrase instead).

EX: He is puzzled by your question.

  1.  Subject Verb Agreement- A singular verb requires a singular verb, and a plural subject requires a plural verb. The subject and its verb are said to agree in number. EX: A botanist studies plant life.  Or   Plants require care.
  2. Antecedent-The word the pronoun refers to.
  3. Pronouns-
  1.  Personal-Refer to people or things.
  2. Subject or subjective pronoun-Used as the subject of the sentence or as a predicate noun.
  3. Object or objective pronoun-Used as a direct object, indirect object, or object of the preposition.
  4. Possessive-Shows ownership
  5. Indefinite- Does not refer to a particular place or thing. Ex: Anybody, everybody
  6. Reflexive- ends with self or selves and refers to the subject of the sentence. It is necessary in the sentence.
  7. Intensive-ends with self or selves and is used to draw special attention, but not necessary in the sentence.
  8. Interrogative- Used in a question.
  9. Demonstrative- this, that, these, those Points something out.
  1.  Articles:

A, an, the a (used before words beginning with a consonant sound), an (used before words beginning with a vowel sound) are indefinite and the is definite.

  1.  Adjectives: Modify or describe a noun or a pronoun.

Questions you ask for them: how many, how much, what kind, which one

  1. Demonstrative Adjectives-This, that, these, those Modify something.
  2. Comparative- An adjective that compares one person or thing with another. Has a 1:1 ratio. One syllable words add er. With adjectives with two or more syllables add more or less to the adjective.

EX: smaller

More famous

Superlative-An adjective that compares one thing to many things. A 1:2 ratio. One syllable words add est. With adjectives with two or more syllables add most or least.

  1. Ex:  smallest

Most fabulous

  1. Adverbs: Modify or describe a verb, adjective, or another adverb.

Questions you ask for them: how, when, where, to what extent

  1. Comparative- An adverb that compares one action with another. Has a 1:1 ratio. One syllable words add er. With adjectives with two or more syllables add more or less to the adverb.EX:  earlier, more often
  2. Superlative-An adverb that compares one action with several other actions. A 1:2 ratio. One syllable words add est. With adjectives with two or more syllables add most or least.EX: earliest, most often
  1. Double Negatives- Using two negative words together.
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