1/9: Which of the following is an example of a biological trait?
- Hair style
- Eye color
- Regional accent
1/10: What resulted when Mendel crossed a purple flowered plant with a white flowered plant?
- Some offspring had purple flowers and some had white flowers.
- All the offspring had white flowers.
- All the offspring had purple flowers.
- All the offspring had pink flowers.
1/12: An Aa individual
- Has a homozygous genotype
- Has a heterozygous phenotype
- Has a heterozygous genotype
- Has a homozygous phenotype
1/22: Which is Mendel’s law of independent assortment?
- Allele pairs separate independently during meiosis.
- Allele pairs separate independently during mitosis.
- Different allele pairs are inherited together.
- Different alleles of the same gene are found on the same locus.
1/23: What is the probability that the offspring of a cross between a homozygous recessive parent and a heterozygous parent will be homozygous recessive?
1/24: The term for a cross that involves just one trait, such as pod shape, is called a
- Homozygous cross
- Test cross
- Monohybrid cross
- Dihybrid cross
1/25: The fur of cattle can be red, white, or roan (white and red together). Which of the following is true about the type of inheritance associated with this trait?
- This is incomplete dominance.
- This is codominance.
- Mutations have occurred in the individual cattle.
- Red is dominant over white.
1/26: A ___________ traces the inheritance of a particular trait through generations.
- Chromosome map
1/29: Suppose a person is a carrier for a genetic disorder. Which of the following phrases about this person is true?
- Does not have the disorder but can pass it on
- Will develop the disorder only late in life
- Cannot pass the disorder to sons, just daughters
- The allele is not passed on due to Y chromosomes inactivation
1/30: Identical twins who are raised apart can have differences that last a lifetime. This is evidence that
- Phenotype differences happen through multiple alleles
- Genotype can change over time
- Environment and genotype interact to affect phenotype
- Codominance affects genotype
2/1: Which of the following types of genetic information can be identified easily with a karyotype?
- Homologous chromosomes
- Dominant traits
- Exact locations of genes
- Recessive alleles
2/2: Can a male be a carrier for hemophilia?
- No he cannot be a carrier because he has only one X chromosome.
- No he cannot be a carrier because he has only one Y chromosome.
- Yes he can be a carrier because he has both an X and Y chromosome.
- Yes he can be a carrier because he has two X chromosomes.
2/6: What term describes a feature that allows an organism to better survive in its environment?
2/7: Which scientist developed a classification system based on similarities?
- Georges Buffon
- Eramus Darwin
- Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
- Carolus Linneaus
2/8: How do artificial selection and natural selection differ?
- In artificial selection, the environment acts as the selecting agent.
- In natural selection, traits that are useful to humans are inherited.
- In natural selection, humans act as the selecting agent.
- In natural selection, the environment acts as the selecting agent.
2/9: Protein molecules are composed of long chains of _______.
- Amino acids
2/12: What can be learned about evolution from DNA sequencing?
- DNA sequencing reveals what structures are homologous.
- Similar DNA sequences in two organisms indicate that one organism evolved from the other.
- Two DNA sequences that are very different indicate that many mutations have occurred.
- The more similar the DNA sequences of two organisms are, the more closely related they are.
2/13: What did the variations in the Galapagos finches seem to be well-suited to?
- The animals’ size
- The animals’ age
- The island the animals lived on
- The animals’ environment and diet
2/14: Which is the best definition of a species?
- A group of organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring together
- A group of organisms that can breed and produce infertile offspring together
- A group of organisms that can breed
- A group of organisms that look and act similar
2/16: Which of the following describes a population?
- Dogs and cats living in Austin, Texas
- Four species of fish living in a pond
- Dogwood trees in Middletown, Connecticut
- Roses and tulips in a garden
2/21: The bottleneck effect occurs when a very large proportion of a population is killed off suddenly. The population faces the risk of becoming extinct. Why is this?
- With only a few individuals remaining, there is great genetic variation.
- With a large population remaining, there is great genetic variation.
- With only a few individuals remaining, there is little genetic variation.
- With a large population remaining, there is little genetic variation.
2/23: DNA is a double-stranded nucleic acid formed by millions of linked nucleotides that each contain the sugar deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogenous bases. How does the structure of DNA allow it to store hereditary information?
- The unique order of the nitrogenous bases codes for specific traits in an organism.
- Each nucleotide in a strand of DNA codes for one specific trait in an organism.
- The sugar deoxyribose codes for all of the specific traits of an organism.
- Each strand of DNA codes for one specific trait in an organism.
2/26: How many groups are in the currently accepted classification scheme?
- 6 kingdoms
- 3 kingdoms
- 2 domains
- 6 domains
2/27: Which of the following is not a feature of a cladogram?
- Derived characters
2/28: Which kingdom is not composed of eukaryotic cells?
3/1: What is the basis for taxonomy?
- Food source
- Biochemical similarities
- Physical and structural similarities
3/5: How is a virus different from a bacterium?
- A virus has both DNA and RNA; a bacterium has only DNA.
- A virus cannot reproduce on its own; a bacterium can.
- A bacterium has organelles; a virus doesn’t.
- A bacterium can cause disease; a virus cannot.
3/6: What is a characteristic of organisms in domain Archaea?
- Their need for oxygen
- Their organelles
- Their ability to live in extreme environments
- Their organ systems
3/7: How are protists different from bacteria?
- Protists are photosynthetic
- Protists are autotrophs
- Protists have membrane-enclosed organelles
- Protists cannot move
3/8: How do prokaryotes reproduce?
- By pili
- By conjugation
- By binary fission
- More than one of these
3/9: What vascular tissue carries sugar through the plant?
- Ground tissue
3/12: Which flowering-plant group is correctly paired with a characteristic?
- Monocot = flower parts in multiples of four or five
- Monocot = ringed vascular tissue
- Dicot = netlike veins
- Dicot = scattered vascular tissue
3/13: Which protist group is made up of decomposers?
- Fungi-like protists
- Plant-like protists
- Animal-like protists
- More than one of these
3/14: What characteristic is not used to group animals?
- Number of Hox genes
- Body plan symmetry
- Developmental patterns
- Number of tissue layers
3/15: Which correctly matches the life cycle phase with its number of chromosomes and function?
- Gametophyte = haploid = produces spores
- Gametophyte = diploid = produces gametes
- Sporophyte = diploid = produces spores
- Sporophyte = haploid = produces gametes
3/19: What animal would you expect to be classified with a lion?
3/22: The ribosome of the bacterium E. coli includes the ribosomal protein L4 (rpl4). The rpl4 gene carries the instructions for making rpl4 protein. Which of the following arguments provides support for the claim that E. coli has a common ancestor with all other organisms?
- Every organism depends on proteins to carry out essential cellular processes. Ribosomes are needed by all organisms to synthesize proteins such as rpl4.
- Every organism possesses in its ribosome a protein that is similar to rpl4. This protein has an amino acid sequence that is similar to the sequence of E. coli’s rpl4.
- Every organism contains a structure that is similar to a ribosome. This structure helps convert the instructions from the rpl4 gene into amino acids.
- Every organism has proteins made of amino acids. The code for amino acids is the same in E. coli because the instructions for amino acids come from the DNA. DNA contains the same components in all organisms.
3/23: Dr. Bennett is a physician. One of his patients presents with a high fever and muscle aches. After examining the patient, Dr. Bennett diagnoses the patient with influenza. Influenza is caused by a ___________, which contains genetic information but cannot reproduce independently and is not considered to be a living organism.
3/26: Ecology is
- The study of how living things interact with each other.
- The study of how living things interact with their environment.
- The study of how living things with each other and with their environment
- The study of how living things and their niche
3/27: Examples of abiotic factors include
- Trees, soil, and sunlight
- Sunlight, soil, and water
- The living aspects of the environment
- All of these
3/28: Approximately how much energy is passed between trophic levels?
3/29: An insect is gathering pollen and nectar for food, but is also aiding in the plant’s reproduction. What does this relationship demonstrate?
4/2: __________ can cause a population to increase in size while ____________ can cause a population to decrease in size.
- Deaths, immigration
- Immigration, births
- Emigration, births
- Immigration, deaths
4/3: The carrying capacity
- Occurs at the end of exponential growth
- Is the largest population size that can be supported without harming the environment
- Can only be surpassed with significant harm to the population
- All of these
4/5: Why does primary succession take longer than secondary succession?
- Many fires must add nutrients to the soil before primary succession can take place.
- An ecosystem must be established in a previously uninhabited area.
- A thick layer of soil must be formed so pioneer species can grow.
- Animals do not contribute to secondary succession.
4/16: Which organisms are affected most by biomagnification?
4/17: How might an introduced plant species kill native plant species?
- Its rapid growth can deprive native plants of sunlight.
- Its rapid growth can deprive native plants of food.
- It can cause soil loss from erosion.
- Its rapid growth can deprive native plants of oxygen.
4/20: The graph was made by a South American biologist in the country of Brazil, after a long study on parrots. About 200 years ago, 90% of Brazil was covered in mature, deep forest. Today, well over half of this forest has been cut to make way for farms. What conclusion could you draw about the parrots in the graph?
- Red parrots have become less common in the last 200 years.
- There are probably less green parrots today than there once were.
- Blue parrots probably are the best adapted species to live on farms.
- The blue parrot population has likely increased in the last 200 years.
4/23: Homeostasis is the maintenance of stable conditions within the body. Which of the following is a method of maintaining homeostasis in the human body?
- Working in air conditioning
- Shivering when cold
- Eating balanced meals
- Sleeping regularly
4/24: Which statement best describes the composition and function of proteins in organisms?
- Long chains of hydrocarbons used for digestion and respiration
- Sugars and starches that provide energy for metabolic processes
- Fats and oils which are well suited for long term energy storage
- Long chains of amino acids used for building, repair, and maintenance
4/25: The chemical reaction for photosynthesis is: 6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2. The chemical reaction for cellular respiration is: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O. What can be said about these two reactions?
- The products of photosynthesis are the reactants of cellular respiration.
- The products of photosynthesis are not involved in cellular respiration.
- The products of photosynthesis are the products of cellular respiration.
- The reactants of photosynthesis are the reactants of cellular respiration.
4/26: Gregor Mendel raised and observed pea plants. In his observations he noticed that some pea plants were tall and some were short. Some plants produced round peas and some produces wrinkled peas. Mendel noticed that different combinations of these traits occurred in each generation. What is the BEST explanation for this variation in pea plants?
- Pea plants reproduce sexually creating variations.
- Pea plants reproduce asexually creating variations.
- Pea plants reproduce asexually making genetic copies of the parent plants.
- Pea plants reproduce sexually genetic copies of the parent plants.
4/27: There are four children in the Smith family. One child has blue eyes and blond hair. The other three children have brown eyes and blond hair. How can you explain this difference in eye color?
- Brown eyes are the inherited trait; blue eyes are a mutation.
- Eye color is an inherited trait; brown eyes are dominant over blue.
- The brown eyed children have spent a lot of time outdoors; it’s an environmental change.
- The blue eyed child is younger than the children with brown eyes; their eyes will become brown.
4/30: Charles Darwin found many different finches while on the Galapagos Islands. This information led Darwin to develop the idea that organisms change, or evolve, over time. Which of these would best describe what Darwin saw as the major difference(s) between these finches?
- They all ate different food.
- They all lived in different areas.
- Both where they lived and what they ate were different.
- Only their beak size was different and they lived together and ate the same food.
5/1: Ostriches are a large flightless African bird with solid bones and very powerful hindlegs for running and kicking. Rheas are from South America. Other than the fact that they are about half the size of an ostrich, their physical features are almost identical to ostriches. Which conclusion is not supported by the observations concerning ostriches and rheas?
- Ostriches and rheas are probably close relatives, since their features are very similar.
- Ostriches and rheas may have evolved from a common ancestor, since they have so many similar features.
- The similarity of ostriches and rheas suggests that Africa and South America may have been joined at one time.
- Ostriches and rheas started off as different species, but have evolved over time to become identical to each other.
5/2: Increased food supplies in an ecosystem decrease competition because the competing organisms would
- Reproduce more often
- Have enough food to eat
- Store large quantities of food
- Have more space in which to live
5/8: Carol and Joseph have freckles and curly red hair. All of their children, except one, also have freckles and curly red hair. Their son, Sam, has the same curly red hair but not one freckle! How can a child get a chromosome that is totally different from the original chromosomes of both parents?
- Gene flow
- Genetic drift
- Crossing over
- Natural selection