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Get your plicker card and answer the following question (based on the date):

8/14: After formulating a hypothesis, a scientist

  1. proves the hypothesis to be true or false
  2. tests the hypothesis
  3. makes sure environmental conditions are just right
  4. formulates a scientific theory

8/15: “Acidic” is the appropriate description for three of the following. Which one is the exception?

  1. Excess hydrogen ions
  2. Magnesium hydroxide
  3. The contents of the stomach
  4. A pH less than 7

8/16: Which of the following statements is incorrect?

  1. An element is made of one specific type of atom.
  2. An ion is an atom with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more protons.
  3. A compound is composed of two or more elements in a fixed ratio.
  4. An element is defined by the number of protons.

8/17: Which of the following statements regarding carbon is false?

  1. Carbon has the capacity to form polar covalent bonds with hydrogen.
  2. Carbon has the ability to form covalent bonds with up to four other atoms.
  3. Carbon has the capacity to form single and double bonds.
  4. Carbon has the ability to bond together to form extensive branched or unbranched “carbon skeletons.”

8/18: What defining characteristic of life is observed when a jogging man begins to sweat and when a plant closes its stomata openings in its leaves?

  1. Metabolism
  2. Heredity
  3. Cellular makeup
  4. Homeostasis

8/22: Which of the following properties of water can be attributed to hydrogen bonding between water molecules?

  1. Water stabilizes temperature inside and outside the cell
  2. Water molecules are cohesive
  3. Water is a solvent for many molecules
  4. All of these are correct

8/23: Enzymes lower the activation energy by

  1. Helping substrates get together
  2. Orienting substrates into positions that favor a reaction
  3. Shutting out water molecules
  4. Inducing a fit between the enzyme and the substrate

8/25: With regard to enzymes, what can be said to be the relationship between the substrate and the active site?

  1. One (or multiple) substrates can bind to the active site and is changed into product(s).
  2. Every active site will always accept multiple substrates in order to produce a new product.
  3. The active site of an enzyme combines with the substrate, when a product is given to the enzyme, producing a new molecule.
  4. A specific product fits into the active site of an enzyme. The enzyme then breaks down the product to make a new substrate.

8/30: Which of the following best distinguishes a prokaryotic cell from a eukaryotic cell?

  1. Prokaryotic cells have a cell wall, but eukaryotic cells never do.
  2. Prokaryotic cells are much larger, but eukaryotic cells.
  3. Prokaryotic cells have flagella, but eukaryotic cells do not.
  4. Prokaryotic cells do not have a membrane-bound nucleus, but eukaryotic cells do have such a nucleus.

8/31: All cells have some similar cellular components. Which of the following is not found in all cells?

  1. Membrane
  2. Nucleus
  3. Ribosomes
  4. Cytoplasm

9/5: When a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution,

  1. Solute exits the cell to equalize the concentration on both sides of the membrane
  2. Water exits the cell toward the area of lower solute concentration
  3. Water enters the cell toward the area of higher solute concentration
  4. There is no net movement of water or solution

9/6: Which of the following best characteristics the structure of the plasma membrane?

  1. Rigid and unchanging
  2. Rigid but varying from cell to cell
  3. Fluid but unorganized
  4. Very active

9/7: What effect does a hypotonic solution have on a cell?

  1. It remains the same.
  2. It causes it to shrink.
  3. It causes it to swell.
  4. None of these

9/8: A U-tube is set up with two solutions, solution A and solution B, separated from each other by a semi-permeable membrane. Solution A has a water potential of 3 and solution B has a water potential of 1.5. Which of the following is true?

  1. Water will move from solution A into solution B.
  2. Solution is hypertonic compared to solution B.
  3. Water will move from solution B into solution A.
  4. Solution B has a higher pressure potential.

9/13: During diffusion, substances move from an area of ____________ concentration to an area of ______________ concentration.

  1. Higher, lower
  2. Lower, higher
  3. Higher, equal
  4. Lower, equal

9/18: Which of the following is not an advantage a cell gains by having organelles?

  1. A cell gains the ability to concentrate enzymes and reactants in a small volume, thus increasing the rate of reaction.
  2. Enzymes for biochemical pathways can be embedded in membranes in their correct sequences, such as the electron carrying proteins of the light reactions.
  3. Microenvironments can be created, such as pHs, greatly different from the cytosol.
  4. The complexity of the cell is lowered, thus making it easier for substances to pass freely through the cell.

9/19: The liver is the site for alcohol detoxification, whereas adipocytes store fat. Which organelle would be found in larger amounts in the liver cell, compared to the adipocyte?

  1. Smooth ER
  2. Golgi apparatus
  3. Cytoskeleton
  4. Mitochondria

9/20: Cell membranes regulate the flow of substances into and out of the cell. Not all molecules are equally soluble. Which of the following is a false statement regarding passage across a cell membrane?

  1. Small, uncharged, polar molecules can pass through
  2. Small, hydrophobic molecules can pass through
  3. Charged particles such as ions are repelled
  4. Only oxygen and carbon dioxide can easily pass through; all other substances require a transport protein

9/21: Which of the following best describes how the organelles of a eukaryotic cell work together when creating a protein?

  1. The proteins translated in the nucleus are processed by the rough endoplasmic reticulum, which then export the proteins to their final destination.
  2. The Golgi apparatus synthesizes proteins and either exports them out of the cell or sends them to the rough endoplasmic reticulum for further processing.
  3. Proteins synthesized by the ribosomes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum are moved by vacuoles to the Golgi apparatus for processing.
  4. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum creates proteins, packages them in vacuoles, and sends them to the Golgi apparatus for processing and transport to the final destination.

9/27: ______________ produces __________, which is the energy molecule for the cell.

  1. Chloroplast, ATP
  2. Mitochondria, ATP
  3. Chloroplast, Glucose
  4. Mitochondria, Glucose

10/2: Which molecules are transferred between the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions (i.e. Calvin cycle)?

  1. CO2 and ATP
  2. ATP and NADPH
  3. NADPH and H2O
  4. H2O and O2

10/5: Which of the following is an incorrect statement about the Calvin cycle?

  1. The main inputs to the reactions are NADPH, ATP, and CO2.
  2. The main outputs of the reactions are NADP+, ADP, and sugar.
  3. More NADPH is used than ATP during the Calvin cycle.
  4. Carbon fixation is the first step of the process.

10/9: What is the carbon dioxide source in this experiment?

  1. Bicarbonate solution
  2. Water
  3. Acid solution
  4. Air

10/16: Which process requires oxygen to function?

  1. Aerobic respiration
  2. Anaerobic respiration
  3. Lactic acid fermentation
  4. Alcoholic fermentation

10/18: ATP synthase is

  1. Both an enzyme that makes ATP and a channel protein, and helps hydrogen ions cross the thylakoid membrane.
  2. Both an enzyme that makes ATP and a channel protein, and helps hydrogen ions cross the chloroplast membrane.
  3. Both an enzyme that makes ATP and a carrier protein, and helps hydrogen ions cross the thylakoid membrane.
  4. Both an enzyme that makes ATP and a carrier protein, and helps hydrogen ions cross the chloroplast membrane.

10/19: Which of the following statements correctly describes a metabolic effect of cyanide, a poison that blocks the passage of electrons along the electron transport chain?

  1. The pH of the intermembrane space becomes much lower than normal.
  2. Alcohol would build up in the mitochondria.
  3. NADH supplies would be exhausted and ATP synthesis would cease.
  4. No proton gradient would be produced, and ATP synthesis would cease.
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